GLOSSARY OF MASONRY TERMS
Additives -- Certain chemicals have been developed over the years
to alter the properties of concrete and these are added during the
mixing process. In freezing weather, a
Aggregates -- A variety of graded materials that are components
of concrete. Sand, gravel, or crushed stone are typical aggregates.
A typical mix of concrete would contain
Cement -- Finely ground calcined rock and clay materials that form the binder in concrete. Portland cement weighs about 97 pounds per cubic foot.
Chairs -- Plastic shapes used to support reinforcing steel prior to placement of concrete.
Concrete -- Mixture of cement, aggregates and water that will harden
or set into a solid
Concrete Plant -- Portable or fixed machinery that measures components
of concrete and
Cure Time -- The time for fresh concrete to reach its design strength.
Typically concrete will reach 90 percent of design strength about
30 days after placing and gradually approach 100 percent over time.
A recent development is HES or High Early Strength
Fly Ash -- By-product of smoke stack emission control that may be used as a substitute for a portion of the cement in a concrete mix.
Form -- A mold in which concrete is placed to set. These may be made of used wood materials, plastics, metal, etc. Some are disposable and other reusable. Can be self-constructed, purchased, or rented.
Hod -- Small platform, tray or trough that has a pole handle and that is borne on the shoulder for carrying loads as mortar or brick.
Hod Carrier -- A laborer employed in carrying supplies to bricklayers, stonemasons, cement finishers, or plasterers on the job.
Kiln -- Oven where high temperatures are used to fire bricks or other ceramic products.
Light Weight Concrete -- Special low density concrete used where strength is not a primary requirement.
Masons -- Generic term given to a broad class of skilled workers who make final placement of shaped masonry products and concrete.
Mortar Mix -- A special type of cement used as a component in the laying of bricks or blocks.
Portland -- Generic name given cement for general purpose concrete. First used by a 19th century developer of concrete. Named for a type of stone found in the British Islands.
Post-stressed -- A technique used mainly in the forming of foundation slabs where threaded steel rods are embedded in the concrete but transverse tension is not placed on the concrete until after the concrete is cured.
Pre-stressed -- A technique of embedding steel in concrete shapes so that the end result will meet certain design specifications for strength and rigidity.
Pumper --Equipment that is often truck mounted used to pump concrete from one place/level to another.
Rebars -- Steel rods ranging from 3/8- to 3-inches thick placed in concrete forms to produce reinforced concrete.
Reinforced Concrete -- Shapes containing steel bars or wire to create stronger and more shock resistant material.
Slump -- A field test given to concrete before curing that measures the viscosity and indirectly the water content. Generally the less viscous, the higher the cured strength for any given mix.
Strength -- Concrete strength is usually expressed
in terms of pounds per square inch (PSI). 3,000 PSI is a typical
specification for building
foundations. A sample of wet concrete is placed in a test cylinder
and after curing, the sample is compressed to its breaking point
on a machine built to show a reading when the concrete breaks. Sometimes
a sample is cut from the cured concrete with a circular cylinder
cutter. An older and less precise measurement of strength is given
in terms of "sacks" per yard. In other words a five bag
mix would contain about 500 pounds of cement per cubic yard of concrete.
Transit Mix -- Concrete that is mixed while being transported by truck to a job site.
Wall Ties -- Small strips of metal fastened to a building's primary structure to hold the masonry in place.